Dopamine

CAS Number 51-61-6
Molecular Formula C8H11NO2
Molecular Weight 153.181 g/mol
InChI Key VYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
LogP -0.980
Synonyms
  • Dopamine
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
  • 1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-
  • 51-61-6
  • 1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-
  • 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethylamine
  • 3-Hydroxytyramine
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)catechol
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol
  • Dopamin
  • dopamina
  • Dophamine
  • Hydroxytyramin
  • NSC 173182
  • Oxytyramine
  • Pyrocatechol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-
  • α-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-β-aminoethane
  • alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane
  • EINECS 200-110-0
  • UNII-VTD58H1Z2X
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-Pyrocatechol
  • 4-(2-azanylethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
  • Deoxyepinephrine
  • Dopaminum
  • Dopastat
  • Dynatra
  • Hydroxytyramine
  • Intropin
  • Revivan
  • a-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethane
  • alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane

Applications:


HPLC Separation of Catecholamines
Primesep 200 separates catecholamines in less than 8 minutes. Tyrosine, dl-DOPA, dopamine, epinephrine are baseline resolved by a combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange, and ion-exclusion mechanisms. Excellent peak shape results with a mass spec compatible mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Condition

Column Primesep 200,4.6x50 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, DOPA, Epinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

Dopamine
Epinephrine

HPLC Analysis of the Catecholamine Pathway
Primesep 200 separates catecholamines in the catecholamine pathway in 10 minutes. Phenylalanine, tyrosine, DOPA, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are baseline resolved by a combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange, and ion-exclusion mechanisms. Excellent peak shape results with a mass spec compatible mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Condition

Column Primesep 200, 3.2x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA
Flow Rate 0.5 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, DOPA, Phenylalanine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine

HPLC Separation of Polar Compounds

The separation of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, can be challenging to separate on a reverse-phase column due to their high polarity. Using a mixed-mode HPLC column, allows the separation of amino acids by cation-exchange and ion-exclusion mechanisms as well as hydrophobicity. Fine tuning of separation can be achieved with changes in organic concentration of the mobile phase as well as choice of buffer and pH.

Condition

Column Primesep 200, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AcOH, AmFm
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection ELSD
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Aspartic acid, Glutaric acid, Glycine, Hydroxytriptophan, GABA, Norepinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:


Aspartic Acid
Dopamine
Glutamic Acid
Norepinephrine
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

HPLC Analysis of Polar Basic and Acetic Compounds on Primesep AB Column
Mixture of polar acidic and basic compounds is separated on a Primesep AB mixed-mode HPLC column. Dopamine and tyrosine are retained by combination of reversed-phase and cation-exchange mechanisms. Maleic acid is retained by anion-exchange mechanism, and benzoic acid is retained by reversed-phase mechanism. Primesep AB is a trimodal column with a C12 hydrophobic chain and cation-exchange and anion exchange groups on the surface. Method utilizes UV detection but can be used with other detection techniques (ELSD, LC/MS, Corona).

Condition

Column Primesep AB, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA - 0.1%
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, Dopamine, Maleic Acid, Benzoic Acid
 

Application Analytes:

Benzoic Acid
Dopamine
Maleic Acid
Tyrosine

HPLC Separation of Compounds of Catecholamine Pathway
The catecholamine neurotransmitters are amino-acid derivatives of tyrosine. DOPA, tyrosine, phenylalanine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine and baseline are resolved on a Primesep 200 column with UV-transparent phosphate buffer. This method can be used for the analysis of catecholamines and related impurities in various matrices. The peak order and retention time can be changed by changing the amount of ACN, buffer concentration and buffer pH. Various buffers can be used to accommodate the desired detection technique. Primesep 200 is a reversed-phase cation-exchange mixed-mode column that can be used for analysis of polar neutral, polar ionizable, polar zwitterionic, hydrophobic neutral, and hydrophobic ionic compounds in the same run. Column can be operated in reverse-phase, cation-exchange, anion-exclusion, HILIC and mixed-modes depending on the mobile phase selection and the nature of the analytes. The column is compatible with LC/MS and does not require the use of ion-pairing reagents.

Condition

Column Primesep 200, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA, AmFm
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, DOPA, Phenylalanine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine

HPLC Separation of Polar and Hydrophobic Drugs on Obelisc R and N

Condition

Column Obelisc N, Obelisc R 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer H3PO4
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 220 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Preservative,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Propyl paraben,  Dopamine, DOPA
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Dopamine
Propylparaben

Separation of Serotonin, Dopamine, and Related Compounds
Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. Some of them are biogenic amines. Retention of compounds of the catecholamine pathway is achieved on Obelisc N column. All polar compounds are well retained by combination of HILIC and ion-exchange mechanisms. Obelisc N columns produce very good peak shapes for all analytes. The method is very sensitive to amount of ACN, buffer and buffer pH. The retention time changes with variation of the main parameters. This method can be used for quantitation of biogenic amines and related compounds (homovanillic acid, dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, hydroxytryptophan, epinephrine and DOPA) in urine, blood and other biological fluids. Further optimization of this HPLC method can be used during screening and validation. Amines and acids can be analyzed in the same run and retained by a combination of polar organic mode, cation-exchange and anion-exchange modes. Various buffers within specified pH can be employed (ammonium formate, ammonium acetate, sodium phosphate, etc.).

Condition

Column Obelisc N, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmAc pH 4.0- 30 mM
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Homovanillic acid, Dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, Serotonin, Dopamine, Epinephrine, Hydroxytryptophan, DOPA
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
DOPAC (Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid)
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Homovanillic Acid
Hydroxytryptophan
Norepinephrine
Serotonin

HPLC Separation of Catecholamines on Primesep 100 Column with Phosphate Buffers
chr_284.gif The catecholamine neurotransmitters are amino-acid derivatives of tyrosine. DOPA, tyrosine, phenylalanine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine and baseline are resolved on a Primesep 100 column with UV-transparent phosphate buffer. This method can be used for analysis of catecholamines and related impurities in various matrices. Peak order and retention time can be changed by changing the amount of ACN, buffer concentration and buffer pH. Various buffers can be used to accommodate desired detection technique. Primesep 100 is a reversed-phase cation-exchange mixed-mode column that can be used for analysis of polar neutral, polar ionizable, polar zwitter-ionic, hydrophobic neutral, and hydrophobic ionic compounds in the same run. Column can be operated in reverse-phase, cation-exchange, anion-exclusion, HILIC and mixed-modes depending on the mobile phase selection and nature of analytes. Column is compatible with LC/MS and does not require use of ion-pairing reagents.

Condition

Column Primesep 100, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer Na2HPO4
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, DOPA, Phenylalanine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine

HPLC Separation of Dopamine and Epinephrine in HILIC and Cation-Exchange Modes
chr_305.gif Dopamine and epinephrine were separated on a Primesep S2 HILIC mixed-mode column. Dopamine and epinephrine are retained by HILIC and cation-exchange mechanisms. Retention time is controlled by the amount of ACN, buffer and buffer pH. Method is compatible with LC/MS and can be used for analysis of polar metabolites in biofluids.

Condition

Column Primesep S2, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmFm
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 250 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Dopamine, Epinephrine
 

Application Analytes:

Dopamine
Epinephrine

HPLC Separation of Homovanillic Acid, Dopamine, and DOPAC using Hydrogen Bonding

Condition

Column Sharc 1, 3.2x50 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase Gradient MeCN/MeOH - 100/0 - 30/70%
Buffer Formic Acid - 0.5% AmFm 0.05% 7 min
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds DOPAC, Homovanillic Acid, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPAC (Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid)
Dopamine
Homovanillic Acid

USP Analysis of Dopamine Using a Legacy L1 column
    Application Notes: Dopamine is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter found in the brain. Dopamine is a well studied compound because dopamine is an important neurotransmitter known to regulate many functions from pain response to behavior disorders. According to USP methods, dopamine hydrochloride contains not less than 98% and not more than 102% dopamine hydrochloride calculated on the dried basis. The USP HPLC method for the separation of hydrocortisone was developed on Legacy L1 column according to the US Pharmacopeia methodology. L1 classification is assigned to reversed-phase HPLC column containing C18 ligand. Support for the material is spherical silica gel with particles size 3-10 um and pore size of 100-120A. Resolution between critical pairs corresponds to rules and specifications of USP. Application Columns: Legacy L1 C18 HPLC column Application compounds: Dopamine hydrochloride Mobile phase: Water with 1% acetic and 5mM octanesulfonic acid/MeCN Detection technique: UV Reference: USP35: NF30  

Condition

Column Legacy L1, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase Water with 1% Acetic and 5 mM Octanesulfonic acid/ MeCN ( 87-13)
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone, Acid
Analyzing Compounds Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

Benzoic Acid
Dopamine

HPLC Separation of DOPAC, Homovanillic Acid and Dopamine on the Primesep 100 Column
  Application Notes: Neurotransmitters DOPAC, homovanillic acid and dopamine were separated by mixed-mode chromatography on Primesep 100 and Primesep 200 HPLC columns. The method can be used for quantification of neurotransmitters with LC/MS compatible conditions. The compounds are retained by combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange or ion-exclusion mechanisms. The retention time and selectivity of separation can be adjusted by variation of amount of acetonitrile, buffer pH and buffer concentration.   Application Columns: Primesep 100 Application compounds: Dopac, Homovanillic Acid, Dopamine Detection technique: UV, LC/MS, ELSD/CAD

Condition

Column Primesep 100, 4.6x50 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O - 5/95%
Buffer AmFm pH 3.0- 30 mM
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds DOPAC, Homovanillic Acid, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPAC (Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid)
Dopamine
Homovanillic Acid

HPLC Separation of DOPAC, Homovanillic Acid in Dopamine on the Primesep 200 Column
  Application Notes: Neurotransmitters DOPAC, homovanillic acid and dopamine were separated by mixed-mode chromatography on Primesep 100 and Primesep 200 HPLC columns. The method can be used for quantification of neurotransmitters with LC/MS compatible conditions. The compounds are retained by combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange or ion-exclusion mechanisms. The retention time and selectivity of separation can be adjusted by variation of amount of acetonitrile, buffer pH and buffer concentration. Application Columns: Primesep 100, Primesep 200 Application compounds: Dopac, Homovanillic Acid, Dopamine Detection technique: UV, LC/MS, ELSD/CAD

Condition

Column Primesep 200, 4.6x50 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O - 5/95%
Buffer AmFm pH 3.0- 30 mM
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds DOPAC, Homovanillic Acid, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPAC (Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid)
Dopamine
Homovanillic Acid

HPLC Determination of Dopamine in Serum

FlipLC™ is an alternative method to avoid the interference of most of the contaminants by the use of an isolation column and a high pressure switching valve before the separation column. This method allows sample cleaning and analyte separation in one automated process. The isolation column and the separation column should have orthogonal retention characteristics to operate efficiently in this setup. Mixed-mode columns with reverse phase and ion-exchange characteristics were used in this analysis.

Condition

Column Primesep 200, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A Primesep SB, 4.6*50 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmFm pH 3.0
Flow Rate  1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 280 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

Dopamine