Epinephrine

CAS Number 51-43-4
Molecular Formula C9H13NO3
Molecular Weight 183.208 g/mol
InChI Key UCTWMZQNUQWSLP-VIFPVBQESA-N
LogP -1.20
Synonyms
  • Epinephrine
  • 4-[(1R)-1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol
  • 1,2-Benzenediol, 4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-
  • 51-43-4
  • 1,2-Benzenediol, 4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-
  • (-)-(R)-Epinephrine
  • (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-α-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzyl alcohol
  • (-)-Adrenaline
  • (-)-Epinephrine
  • (R)-Adrenaline
  • (R)-Epinephrine
  • 1,2-Benzenediol, 4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-, (R)-
  • Adnephrine
  • Adrenal
  • Adrenalin
  • Adrenaline
  • Adrenine
  • Ana-Kit
  • BENZENE-1,2-DIOL, 4-[1-HYDROXY-2-(METHYLAMINO) ETHYL]-, (R)-
  • Benzyl alcohol, 3,4-dihydroxy-α-[(methylamino)methyl]-, (-)-
  • Bronkaid Mist
  • Chelafrin
  • Epifrin
  • Epiglaufrin
  • epinefrina
  • Epinephran
  • Epinephrin
  • Epirenan
  • Exadrin
  • Glauposine
  • Hemisine
  • Hemostasin
  • Hemostatin
  • Hypernephrin
  • Isoptoepinal
  • l-1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylaminoethanol
  • l-Adrenaline
  • l-Epinephrine
  • l-Epirenamine
  • Levoepinephrine
  • Levorenen
  • Levorenin
  • Levorenine
  • Levoreninum
  • L-Methylaminoethanolcatechol
  • Lyodrin
  • Methylarterenol
  • Mucidrina
  • Nephridine
  • Nieraline
  • NSC 62786
  • Paranephrin
  • Primatene Mist
  • R-(-)-Epinephrine
  • Renaglandin
  • Renaleptine
  • Renalina
  • Renoform
  • Renostypticin
  • Renostyptin
  • Scurenaline
  • Simplene
  • Styptirenal
  • Supracapsulin
  • Supranephrane
  • Suprarenaline
  • Suprarenin
  • Surrenine
  • Sus-phrine
  • Takamina
  • Vasoconstrictine
  • Vasotonin
  • 1-Adrenalin
  • Adrenalin-Medihaler
  • Adrenalinum
  • Adrenamine
  • Adrenapax
  • Adrenasol
  • Adrenodis
  • Adrenohorma
  • Adrenosan
  • Adrenutol
  • Antiasthmatique
  • Asthma meter mist
  • Asthma-nefrin
  • Astmahalin
  • Astminhal
  • Balmadren
  • Bernarenin
  • Biorenine
  • Brevirenin
  • Bronkaid
  • Corisol
  • (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol
  • 1-1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylaminoethanol
  • Drenamist
  • Dylephrin
  • Dyspne-inhal
  • EINECS 200-098-7
  • 1-Epinephrine
  • Esphygmogenina
  • Glaucosan
  • Glycirenan
  • Haemostasin
  • Haemostatin
  • Hektalin
  • Hyporenin
  • Intranefrin
  • Kidoline
  • Lyophrin
  • Methylaminoethanolcatechol
  • Myosthenine
  • Mytrate
  • RCRA waste number P042
  • Sindrenina
  • Soladren
  • Sphygmogenin
  • Stryptirenal
  • Supradin
  • Supranefran
  • Supranephrine
  • Sympathin I
  • Takamine
  • Tokamina
  • Tonogen
  • Vaponefrin
  • Vasodrine
  • Twinject
  • Epi E Z Pen jr
  • Epipen E Z Pen
  • Epipen jr.
  • Sus-phrine sulfite-free
  • Twinject 0.15
  • Twinject 0.3
  • Adrenalina
  • Epinefrin
  • Epinephrinum
  • UNII-YKH834O4BH
  • Auvi-Q auto-injector
  • (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-a-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzyl alcohol
  • (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-alpha-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzyl alcohol
  • (-)-3,4-dihydroxy-a-[(methylamino)methyl]-Benzyl alcohol
  • (-)-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol
  • (-)-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-[(methylamino)methyl]-Benzyl alcohol
  • (R)-(-)-adrenaline
  • (R)-4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-Benzenediol
  • 4-[(1R)-1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-benzenediol
  • 4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-methylamino-ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol
  • 4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-methylamino-ethyl]pyrocatechol
  • 4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-methylaminoethyl]benzene-1,2-diol
  • Adrin
  • Bosmin
  • Epinefrina
  • Epipen
  • Eppy
  • L-Epinephrine
  • R-(-)-Epinephrine
  • Takamina
  • 51028-73-0

Applications:


HPLC Separation of Catecholamines
Primesep 200 separates catecholamines in less than 8 minutes. Tyrosine, dl-DOPA, dopamine, epinephrine are baseline resolved by a combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange, and ion-exclusion mechanisms. Excellent peak shape results with a mass spec compatible mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Condition

Column Primesep 200,4.6x50 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, DOPA, Epinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

Dopamine
Epinephrine

HPLC Analysis of the Catecholamine Pathway
Primesep 200 separates catecholamines in the catecholamine pathway in 10 minutes. Phenylalanine, tyrosine, DOPA, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are baseline resolved by a combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange, and ion-exclusion mechanisms. Excellent peak shape results with a mass spec compatible mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Condition

Column Primesep 200, 3.2x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA
Flow Rate 0.5 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, DOPA, Phenylalanine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine

Separation of Epinephrine Norepinephrine



Primesep 200 separates the catecholamines, norepinephrine and epinephrine, less than 8 minutes. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are baseline resolved by a combination of reversed-phase, and ion-exchange mechanisms. Excellent peak shape results with a mass spec compatible mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.



Application Analytes:

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

HPLC Separation of Compounds of Catecholamine Pathway
The catecholamine neurotransmitters are amino-acid derivatives of tyrosine. DOPA, tyrosine, phenylalanine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine and baseline are resolved on a Primesep 200 column with UV-transparent phosphate buffer. This method can be used for the analysis of catecholamines and related impurities in various matrices. The peak order and retention time can be changed by changing the amount of ACN, buffer concentration and buffer pH. Various buffers can be used to accommodate the desired detection technique. Primesep 200 is a reversed-phase cation-exchange mixed-mode column that can be used for analysis of polar neutral, polar ionizable, polar zwitterionic, hydrophobic neutral, and hydrophobic ionic compounds in the same run. Column can be operated in reverse-phase, cation-exchange, anion-exclusion, HILIC and mixed-modes depending on the mobile phase selection and the nature of the analytes. The column is compatible with LC/MS and does not require the use of ion-pairing reagents.

Condition

Column Primesep 200, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA, AmFm
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, DOPA, Phenylalanine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine

HPLC Separation of Epinephrine and Epinephrine Sulfonate
Epinephrine and epinephrine sulfonate are separated on combination of Primesep 100 and Primesep SB HPLC columns. Primesep 100 column retains epinephrine by combination of reversed-phase and cation-exchange mechanisms. Epinephrine sulfonate is retained by weak reversed-phase mechanism. Due to strong zwitter-ionic nature of epinephrine sulfonate, ionic interaction is not available for this molecule. Compounds can be monitored by UV, ELSD, CAD or LC/MS.

Condition

Column Primesep SB, Primesep 100 4.6x250 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O - 70/30%
Buffer AmFm
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Vitamin, Supplements
Analyzing Compounds Epinephrine, Epinephrine Sulfonate
 

Application Analytes:

Epinephrine
Epinephrine Sulfonate

HILIC Separation of Epinephrine and Epinephrine Sulfonate
Epinephrine (also referred to as adrenaline) is a hormone and neurotransmitter. It is a catecholamine, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. This method can be used to determine and quantitate epinephrine and epinephrine sulfonate in biological fluids (urine, blood, serum) and drug formulations. Obelisc N columns are used to retain and separate epinephrine and epinephrine sulfonate in mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Epinephrine is retained by the combination of cation-exchange and HILIC mechanisms. Epinephrine sulfonate is retained by HILIC mechanism. Buffer concentration and pH, as well as the amount of acetonitrile, can be used to adjust retention of both compounds. Both compounds can be detected by UV, ELSD and LC/MS. Preparative separation is possible with volatile mobile phases (ammonium formate or ammonium acetate.

Condition

Column Obelisc N, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmFm pH 3.0
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Vitamin, Supplements
Analyzing Compounds Epinephrine, Epinephrine Sulfonate
 

Application Analytes:

Epinephrine
Epinephrine Sulfonate

Separation of Serotonin, Dopamine, and Related Compounds
Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. Some of them are biogenic amines. Retention of compounds of the catecholamine pathway is achieved on Obelisc N column. All polar compounds are well retained by combination of HILIC and ion-exchange mechanisms. Obelisc N columns produce very good peak shapes for all analytes. The method is very sensitive to amount of ACN, buffer and buffer pH. The retention time changes with variation of the main parameters. This method can be used for quantitation of biogenic amines and related compounds (homovanillic acid, dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, hydroxytryptophan, epinephrine and DOPA) in urine, blood and other biological fluids. Further optimization of this HPLC method can be used during screening and validation. Amines and acids can be analyzed in the same run and retained by a combination of polar organic mode, cation-exchange and anion-exchange modes. Various buffers within specified pH can be employed (ammonium formate, ammonium acetate, sodium phosphate, etc.).

Condition

Column Obelisc N, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmAc pH 4.0- 30 mM
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Homovanillic acid, Dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, Serotonin, Dopamine, Epinephrine, Hydroxytryptophan, DOPA
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
DOPAC (Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid)
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Homovanillic Acid
Hydroxytryptophan
Norepinephrine
Serotonin

HPLC Separation of Neurotransmitters and Related Drugs
Epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) are hormones and neurotransmitters. Epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine in a synthetic pathway shared by all catecholamines, including L-dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Phenylephrine is used as a decongestant, available as an oral medicine or as a nasal spray. Phenylephrine is now the most common over-the-counter (OTC) decongestant. All three compounds are used in various drug compositions. Separation of epinephrine and norepinephrine is a challenging task due to polarity and close properties of two compounds. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and phenylephrine are separated in this method on Obelisc R mixed-mode HPLC columns. The method is very sensitive to variation of pH and pH adjustment can be used to achieve desired selectivity and retention time. Other catecholamines can be analyzed using this HPLC method. The method can be used as a stability indicating or a impurity profiling approach to the analysis of neurotransmitters in drug formulation, blood, serum and urine.

Condition

Column Obelisc R, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer  AmFm
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 250 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Phenylalanine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine
 

Application Analytes:

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Phenylephrine

HPLC Separation of Epinephrine and Related Impurities
Epinephrine (also referred to as adrenaline) is a hormone and neurotransmitter. It is a catecholamine, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. Epinephrine is polar basic compounds and it is retained on mixed-mode cation exchange columns without ion-pairing reagent. Epinephrine is retained by weak reversed phase and strong cation-exchange mechanisms. Formulations for epinephrine might have citric and ascorbic acid and EDTA. These three compounds are not retained by cation-exchange or reversed-phase mechanisms and elute in the void. Current HPLC method can be used for quantitation of epinephrine and recepinephrine (recemate) in various compositions. Epinephrine and related impurity can be monitored by UV, ELCD/MS, ELSD or Corona CAD. Corresponding buffer is required for each detection technique.

Condition

Column Primesep 200,  4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer NaH2PO4
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection 410
 

Description

Class of Compounds Ions,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Ascorbic acid, Citric acid, EDTA, Racepinephrine


Application Analytes:

Epinephrine
Racepinephrine

HPLC Separation of Catecholamines on Primesep 100 Column with Phosphate Buffers
chr_284.gif The catecholamine neurotransmitters are amino-acid derivatives of tyrosine. DOPA, tyrosine, phenylalanine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine and baseline are resolved on a Primesep 100 column with UV-transparent phosphate buffer. This method can be used for analysis of catecholamines and related impurities in various matrices. Peak order and retention time can be changed by changing the amount of ACN, buffer concentration and buffer pH. Various buffers can be used to accommodate desired detection technique. Primesep 100 is a reversed-phase cation-exchange mixed-mode column that can be used for analysis of polar neutral, polar ionizable, polar zwitter-ionic, hydrophobic neutral, and hydrophobic ionic compounds in the same run. Column can be operated in reverse-phase, cation-exchange, anion-exclusion, HILIC and mixed-modes depending on the mobile phase selection and nature of analytes. Column is compatible with LC/MS and does not require use of ion-pairing reagents.

Condition

Column Primesep 100, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer Na2HPO4
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, DOPA, Phenylalanine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine
 

Application Analytes:

DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine

HPLC Separation of Dopamine and Epinephrine in HILIC and Cation-Exchange Modes
chr_305.gif Dopamine and epinephrine were separated on a Primesep S2 HILIC mixed-mode column. Dopamine and epinephrine are retained by HILIC and cation-exchange mechanisms. Retention time is controlled by the amount of ACN, buffer and buffer pH. Method is compatible with LC/MS and can be used for analysis of polar metabolites in biofluids.

Condition

Column Primesep S2, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmFm
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 250 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Dopamine, Epinephrine
 

Application Analytes:

Dopamine
Epinephrine

USP Methods for the Analysis of Epinephrine Using the Legacy L1 Column
  Application Notes: Epinephrine is a synthetic adrenaline used to treat cardiac arrest and anaphylaxis. Phenylephrine is a decongestant and is often used instead of pseudoephedrine. According to the USP methods epinephrine contains no less than 97% and no more than 100.5 percent of epinephrine calculated on a dried basis. The USP HPLC method for the separation of phenylephrine and epinephrine was developed on Legacy L1 column according to the US Pharmacopeia methodology. L1 classification is assigned to reversed-phase HPLC column containing C18 ligand. Support for the material is spherical silica gel with particles size 3-10 um and pore size of 100-120A. Resolution between critical pairs corresponds to rules and specifications of USP. Application Columns: Legacy L1 C18 HPLC column Application compounds: Epinephrine and Phenylphrine Mobile phase: Water/MeOH (50/50) with 1% 1-Octanesulfonic acid adjust to pH 3.0 with H3PO4 Detection technique: UV Reference: USP35: NF30

Condition

Column Legacy L1, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeOH/MeOH - 50/50%
Buffer 1-Octanesulfonic acid adjust to pH 3.0 with H3PO4 - 0.1%
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 270 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Antiarrhythmic, Hydrophobic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Epinephrine
 

Application Analytes:

Epinephrine

HPLC Separation of Epinephrine on Legacy L1 Column
Epinephrine was analyzed according to the US Pharmacopeia method on traditional reversed-phase HPLC columns, classified as a L1 type of column according to USP classification. Legacy L1 column can be used for the analysis of drug substances in various formulations. Legacy L1 can be used in new HPLC methods as well as in validated methods which require experiments based on USP manuscript. The mobile phase can be modified to accommodate other detection techniques, like LC/MS.

Condition

Column Legacy L1, 4.6x150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeOH - 15%
Buffer Sodium 1 -Octane sulfonate/EDTA
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 280 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Neurotransmitter, Hydrophobic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Epinephrine
 

Application Analytes:

Epinephrine

HPLC Analysis of Epinephrine and Epinephrine Sulfonate on Primesep AB Column
  Epinephrine and epinephrine sulfonate were analyzed using Primesep AB, a reverse-phase column with both acidic and basic embedded ion-pairing groups. This method is LC/MS compatible.  

Condition

Column Primesep AB, 4.6x250 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O - 5/95%
Buffer H3PO4 - 0.25%
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 280 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Vitamin, Supplements
Analyzing Compounds Epinephrine, Epinephrine Sulfonate
 

Application Analytes:

Epinephrine
Epinephrine Sulfonate

Generic Screening Method for Complex Mixtures

Condition

Column Primesep 200, 4.6*150 mm 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer H2SO4
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 215 nm
 

Description

Class of Compounds Drug, Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Uracil, Epinephrine, DOPA, 2,6-Lutidine, Benzylamine, Hydroxytrypthophan, Homovanillic acid, Phenol, Tryptophan , 2,3-DHBA, Benzoic acid, Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Toluene, Amitriptyline
 

Application Analytes:

2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid
2,6-Lutidine
Amitriptyline
Benzoic Acid
Benzylamine
DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Epinephrine
Ethyl Paraben
Homovanillic Acid
Hydroxytryptophan
Methylparaben
Phenol
Toluene
Tryptophan
Uracil

HPLC Determination of Epinephrine in Human Plasma Sample

FlipLC™ is an alternative method to avoid the interference of most of the contaminants by the use of an isolation column and a high pressure switching valve before the separation column. This method allows sample cleaning and analyte separation in one automated process. The isolation column and the separation column should have orthogonal retention characteristics to operate efficiently in this setup. Mixed-mode columns with reverse phase and ion-exchange characteristics were used in this analysis.

Application Analytes:

Epinephrine
Epinephrine bitartrate