Succinic Acid

CAS Number 110-15-6
Molecular Formula C4H6O4
Molecular Weight 118.088 g/mol
InChI Key KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
LogP -0.590
Synonyms
  • Butanedioic acid
  • 110-15-6
  • Succinic acid
  • 4-02-00-01908
  • 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
  • 1,4-Butanedioic acid
  • Acide succinique
  • acido succinico
  • Amber acid
  • Asuccin
  • BERNSTEINSAEURE
  • Bernsteinsaure
  • Dihydrofumaric acid
  • Katasuccin
  • NSC 106449
  • NSC 25949
  • Wormwood acid
  • Yantar-antitox
  • BRN 1754069
  • EINECS 203-740-4
  • Ethylene dicarboxylic acid
  • Ethylenesuccinic acid
  • Kyselina jantarova
  • UNII-AB6MNQ6J6L
  • Succinicum acidum
  • 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate
  • 1,4-Butanedioate
  • Butandisaeure
  • Dihydrofumarate
  • E363
  • HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH
  • Succinate
  • acide butanedioique
  • acidum succinicum
  • spirit of amber
  • 623158-99-6

Applications:


Separation of Diacid: Ion Exclusion mode



Primesep 100 separates a mixture of dicarboxylic acids in ion-exclusion mode with a mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with UV detection at 210 nm. Baseline resolution of fumaric, maleic, malic, and succinic acids is obtained in less than 8 minutes. The separation combines ion-exclusion and reversed-phase mechanisms in one method.



Application Analytes:

Dicarboxylic Acids
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Succinic Acid

Separation of Diacid Hydrophobic and Ion Exclusion Modes



Primesep 200 retains and separates the organic diacids (malic, succinic, fumaric, and maleic) by a combination hydrophobic, reversed-phase interactions and ion exclusion. The separation uses a mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.



Application Analytes:

Dicarboxylic Acids
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Succinic Acid

HPLC Separation of Organic Acids in HILIC Mode on Primesep N Column



Ascorbic, methylmalonic and succinic are weak organic acids. Retention of these three acids is achieved on Primesep N column in HILIC mode using acetonitrile/water and ammonium acetate. Compounds are monitored by ELSD. Method can be used for determination of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), methylmalonic acid and succinic acid in various matrices. Other polar organic acids can be analyzed on this HILIC column.



Application Analytes:

Ascorbic Acid
Methylmalonic Acid
Organic Acids
Succinic Acid

HPLC Separation of Succinic and Methylmalonic Acids


Organic and inorganic acids can be separated by reversed-phase anion-exchange Primesep D column. Succinic and methylmalonic acids were separated based on their hydrophobic and ionic properties. Method can be used for analysis of other acids by HPLC.



Application Analytes:

Methylmalonic Acid
Organic Acids
Succinic Acid

HPLC Application for Analysis of Sodium Succinate on Primesep 100



Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that plays important role in citric acid cycle. Succinic acid is byproduct of sugar fermentation, and is present in wines and beer. In one of the forms it exists as a salt with sodium. Both sodium and succinic acid can be retained and separated on Primesep 100 column. Sodium is retained by cation-exchange mechanism, while succinic acid is separated by reverse phase mechanism. Method can be used for HPLC analysis of metal ions (sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, etc) and carboxylic acids (hydrophobic carboxylic mono and diacids) in one chromatographic run. ELSD is detection of choice for non-UV active non-volatile compounds.



Application Analytes:

Succinic Acid

Effect of both pH and Organic Content on a Separation of Sugars, Amino Acids, and Carboxylic Acids


In mixed-mode HILIC chromatography, selectivity of separation can be adjusted by amount of acetonitrile, amount of buffer and buffer pH. Buffer concentration and pH will affect retention of ionizable compounds to a different degree. Retention of neutral compounds can be adjusted by the amount of acetonitrile. Carboxylic acid, three amino acids and two sugars are separated by combination of HILIC and ion-exchange mechanisms. Compounds can be monitored by ELSD, Corona (CAD), LC/MS or low UV. UV-transparent mobile phase /buffer is required for UV monitoring of this mixed-mode separation. This HPLC method can be adopted as general approach for analysis of sugars, amino acids and carboxylic acids.



Application Analytes:

Aspartic Acid
Phenylalanine
Succinic Acid

HILIC Separation of Carboxylic Acids



Hydrophilic acids are separated on Obelisc N mixed-mode HILIC column. Seven carboxylic acids are separated based on their polarity and pKa values. Changes in ionization states of acids and stationary phase can be used to control elution order of organic and inorganic acids.



Application Analytes:

Fumaric Acid
Hydroxybenzoic Acid
Malic Acid
Mandelic Acid
Methylmalonic Acid
Organic Acids
Succinic Acid
Tartaric Acid

HPLC Analysis of Basic Drugs and Acidic Counter-Ions by Mixed-Mode Chromatography
The majority of drugs in the pharmaceutical industry are administered in salt form. The presence of two counter-ions very often necessitates the use of two methods. The nature of these counterparts in drugs can be an inorganic cation and organic acid, inorganic anion and organic base, and organic cation and organic anion. Furthermore, the properties of the molecules will result in a differing stoichiometry. The task of simultaneous quantitation of counter-ions can be achieved by using mixed-mode columns. The general approach for analysis is based on properties of corresponding counter-ions. Hydrophobic basic drugs, like dextromethorphan, verapamil, trimipramine, and corresponding acidic counter-ions (chloride, chlorate, bromide, bromate, perchlorate, maleate, fumarate,tartrate, succinate, phosphate, citrate, benzosulfonate, toleuensulfonate) can be separated and quantitated in the same run on reversed-phase anion-exchange column. Basic hydrophobic drugs are retained by the reversed-phase mechanism, and counter-ions are retained by the reversed-phase and anion-exchange mechanism. Some polar counter-ions are retained only by the anion-exchange mechanism. Retention time and selectivity of HPLC separation of drugs and counter-ions can be achieved by changing the amount of acetonitrile and the amount of ions in the mobile phase. The detection technique depends on the properties of the counter-ions. In case of low or no UV activity, ELSD can be employed if the counter-ion forms a non-volatile salt with the mobile phase additive (ammonium formate). This HPLC method can be used for simultaneous quantitation of other basic drugs and counter-ions. The presence of two mechanisms of retention allows control over retention times of drug and counter-ion independently, and even allows a change of order of elution when necessary.

Application Analytes:

Benzenesulfonic Acid
Bromide
Chlorate
Chloride
Citric Acid
Dextromethorphan
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Organic Acids
Perchlorate
Phosphoric Acid
Pyrilamine
Succinic Acid
Tartaric Acid
Verapamil
p-Toluenesulfonic Acid (PTSA)

Separation of Maleic and Succinic Acid on Primesep B2 column

chr_303.gif

Organic and inorganic acids can be retained and separated on mixed-mode columns based on weak reversed-phase and weak/medium anion-exchange mechanisms. Amount of ACN, buffer concentration and buffer pH will affect retention time of organic and inorganic acids. Acids can be monitored by low UV, ELSD or LC/MS. Presence of ions is required to facilitate ion-exchange mechanism. Method can be used as a general approach for analysis of acidic hydrophilic and acidic hydrophobic compounds. Carboxylic acids along with inorganic acid can be retained and separated without ion-pairing reagent.



Application Analytes:

Maleic Acid
Organic Acids
Succinic Acid

HPLC Separation of Organic Acids



Application Analytes:

Butanesulfonate
Malic Acid
Organic Acids
Sodium
Succinic Acid

HPLC Separation of Succinylcholine and Choline Using a Primesep 200 Column

su



Application Analytes:

Choline
Succinic Acid
Succinylcholine

Analysis of Compounds of TCA Cycle on SHARC 1 Column

This is an alternative approach for the separation of the TCA cycle intermediates that was developed using novel hydrogen-bonding HPLC column. The organic nature of the mobile phase helps obtain a highly sensitive LC/MS compatible method.



Application Analytes:

Citric Acid
Fumaric Acid
Isocitric Acid
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Succinic Acid

Separation of Compounds in TCA Cycle on Primesep D Column

The citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle, Krebs cycle) is a key process in the metabolic pathway by which all aerobic organisms generate energy. Compounds generated during TCA are hydrophilic, acidic compounds. Some of the hydrophilic acids are very strong while others are relatively weaker. All compounds have very low hydrophobicity and do not retain by the reversed-phase mechanism on the C18 or C8 HPLC columns. Citric acid and related products were separated in reversed-phase, anion-exchange mode on the Primesep D mixed-mode column. All hydrophilic, acidic compounds are well separated and demonstrate good shape. This robust method can be used for analysis of components of the TCA cycle and other highly hydrophilic compounds. This method is fully compatible with LC/MS and prep chromatography.



Application Analytes:

Citric Acid
Fumaric Acid
Isocitric Acid
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Sodium
Succinic Acid