Toluene

CAS Number 108-88-3
Molecular Formula C7H8
Molecular Weight 92.141 g/mol
InChI Key YXFVVABEGXRONW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
LogP 2.73
Synonyms
  • Toluene
  • Benzene, methyl-
  • 108-88-3
  • Benzene, methyl-
  • 1-Methylbenzene
  • Benzene, methyl
  • Benzene,methyl
  • Methacide
  • METHYL BENZENE
  • Methylbenzene
  • Methylbenzol
  • NSC 406333
  • Phenylmethane
  • TOLOULE OR TOLUOL
  • tolueno
  • Toulene
  • UN 1294
  • Caswell No. 859
  • EINECS 203-625-9
  • EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 080601
  • Methane, phenyl-
  • NCI-C07272
  • RCRA waste number U220
  • Tolu-Sol
  • Tolueen
  • Toluolo
  • UNII-3FPU23BG52
  • Methyl-Benzene
  • Methylbenzene, 9CI
  • Monomethyl benzene
  • Phenyl-Methane
  • Toluen
  • Toluol
  • 1053657-77-4
  • 1202864-97-8

Applications:


Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Compound Separation


Primesep 100 separates a mixture of polar and nonpolar compounds in one analytical run. The amino acid cysteine; amino acid derivatives L-cystine, 2,2-dimethylcystine, and 2-methylcysteine; the polar acid benzoic acid; and the nonpolar neutral toluene are separated by a gradient using a combination of polar and hydrophobic interactions. The separation method uses a mobile phase mixture of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Application Analytes:

2,2-Dimethylcysteine
2-Methylcysteine
Amino Acids
Benzoic Acid
Cysteine
L-Cystine
Toluene

Complex Mixture of Acids, Bases, Amino Acids, and Neutral Compounds



Primesep 100 separates a mixture of amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine), organic acids (benzoic acid, mandelic acid), amines (benzylamine, pyridine), and neutrals (benzonitrile, toluene) in one HPLC run by combining reversed-phase, cation-exchange, and polar interactions. The method is tunable and peak order can be changed significantly by adjusting acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid concentrations. The separation method uses a mobile phase mixture of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) and compatible with UV, mass spec (LC/MS) and evaporative light scattering (ELSD) detection.



Application Analytes:

Amino Acids
Benzoic Acid
Benzonitrile
Benzylamine
Mandelic Acid
Organic Acids
Phenylalanine
Pyridine
Toluene
Tyrosine

HPLC Application for Simultaneous Separation of Amino Acids, Hydrophilic Acidic and Hydrophobic Neutral Compounds



Mixed-mode chromatography allows separating, in single run, compounds with vastly different properties. A method for separation of amino acids (cysteine, methylcysteine, cystine and dimethylcysteine) in the presence of carboxylic acid (benzoic) and hydrophobic neutral compounds was developed on Primesep 100 mixed-mode column. At lower pH ionization of carboxylic acids is suppressed. Amino acids are retained as basic compound based on reverse phase and cation exchange mechanisms. Carboxylic acids are retained on this column based on weak reverse phase mechanisms. Neutral compounds are retained by reverse phase mechanism as on any other column. Retention time of basic, zwitter-ionic and hydrophobic compound can be adjusted by manipulation of mobile phase composition. ELSD, UV or LC/MS detection can be used based on the properties of analytes and mobile phase selection.



Application Analytes:

2,2-Dimethylcysteine
2-Methylcysteine
Benzoic Acid
Cystine
L-Cysteine
Toluene

HPLC Separation of 8 Generic Compounds on Primesep Columns
Mixed-mode HPLC columns allow to analyze compounds with drastically different properties in one run. Acidic, basic, and neutral compounds can be separated in one run using either isocratic or gradient conditions. In this application, neutral hydrophilic (uracil, phenol and hydroquinone), neutral hydrophobic (toluene), hydrophilic acidic (benzoic acid), hydrophilic basic (lutidine) and hydrophobic basic (amitriptyline) are separated using gradient of ACN. Neutral compounds are retained by reversed-phase mechanism, hydrophilic acidic compound become more hydrophobic at lower pH and retain by reversed-phase mechanism too. Basic compounds are retained by cation exchange mechanism, and hydrophobic basic compounds are retained by reversed-phase and cation-exchange mechanisms. All compounds are resolved within 17 minutes on a short column. Method can be applied to various polar and hydrophobic compounds, which can be separated on one column and in one run. Mixed-mode columns can operate in single or combination of several modes: reversed-phase, ion-exchange, ion-exclusion and HILIC. This mixed-mode HPLC column can be used as a general column for separation of wide range of compounds.

Application Analytes:

Amitriptyline
Benzoic Acid
Benzylamine
Hydroquinone
Lutidine
Phenol
Toluene
Uracil

HPLC Separation of Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Compounds


Primesep 100 and Primesep 200 columns can be used as a universal column for analysis of wide range of compounds. These mixed-mode reversed-phase ion-exchange HPLC columns can provide a valuable alternative to traditional reversed-phase column. Amines, amino acids, quaternary amines, and various zwitter-ions can be analyzed along with hydrophobic compounds and organic and inorganic counter-ions. In this application, 8 compounds with different hydrophobic, hydrophilic, basic and acidic properties are separated based on their properties. Primesep 100 column is a mixed-mode HPLC column with a C12 carbon chain and carboxylic acid on the surface with pKa of 1. Primesep 200 column is a mixed-mode HPLC column with a C12 carbon chain and carboxylic acid on the surface with pKa of 2. These columns can be used with 100% organic (ACN) and 100% aqueous mobile phases. This HPLC method can be adopted as a generic and robust approach for analysis of acidic, basic and neutral compounds within the same run.



Application Analytes:

Amitriptyline
Benzoic Acid
Benzylamine
Hydroquinone
Lutidine
Phenol
Toluene
Uracil

HPLC Separation of Amino Acids, Bases, Acids, and Neutrals on Obelisc R





Application Analytes:

2,6-Lutidine
Benzoic Acid
Benzonitrile
Benzylamine
Phenol
Phenylalanine
Pyridine
Toluene
Tryptophan

HPLC Separation of Methyl Paraben, Benzonitrile, Propyl Paraben, and Toluene on Mixed-Mode and Reverse Phase Columns


Parabens are common preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. They are esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Method for separation of methyl paraben, propyl paraben, benzonitrile and toluene was developed on a Obelisc R column. All four compounds are neutral and are retained by reverse-phase mechanism. In case of reversed-phase stationary phase, no effect of pH is observed. Retention time for all four compounds changes on an Obelisc R column when pH is changed. pH of the mobile phase affects ionization state of stationary phase. Obelisc R column has C12 carbon chain and carboxylic acid with pKa of 4. At lower pH (pH 2, TFA), carboxylic acid of stationary phase is not ionized and thus adds hydrophobicity to stationary phase. Obelisc R column can be used for analysis of basic, acidic and neutral compounds with suitable detection techniques - UV, ELSD, CAD, LC/MS.



Application Analytes:

Benzonitrile
Methylparaben
Propylparaben
Toluene

Generic Screening Method for Complex Mixtures



Application Analytes:

2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid
2,6-Lutidine
Amitriptyline
Benzoic Acid
Benzylamine
DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine)
Epinephrine
Ethyl Paraben
Homovanillic Acid
Hydroxytryptophan
Methylparaben
Phenol
Toluene
Tryptophan
Uracil